Claudio Paschoa September 11, They are fast, silent and packed with state of the art technology. The Virginia-class submarines weigh 7, tons and are feet long, with a foot beam, they can reach speeds of more than 25 knots submerged.
Modern submarines travel in some of the most difficult and extreme environmental conditions, thousands of feet below the ocean's surface. When it comes to submarines committed to the naval defense of countries around the globe, the importance and potential risk increase political conflict mount. In addition, today's undersea boats often have as much technology on board as the naval ships cutting through the waves above, and sometimes a great deal more.
A submarine or sub is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersiblewhich has more limited underwater capability. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robotsas well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub.
This is Alvin, a famous US Navy deep sea submarine. It survived the extreme conditions of deep sea exploration looking for lost hydrogen bombs, surveying the Titanic, and exploring a hydrothermal vent for the first time in history. It was one of the first manned deep sea submarines, a much better vehicle than the original Trieste bathyscaphe, which was too large and hard to maneuver.
Download the article KB. I would like to reflect on some of the technological developments and problems that have been part of this century of achievement. The issues have often been of the utmost complexity, demanding the highest standards of engineering judgement, but from a personal perspective in many ways it just boils down to the title of this article.
We use the vast experience of our engineers, gained through years of service in the marine industry, combined with advanced research into structure and hydrodynamics, to ensure development of the most relevant and up-to-date Rules. Bureau Veritas provides a collection of more than technical documents freely available for download. These documents detail applicable requirements for certification and classification by Bureau Veritas.
A photonics mast or optronics mast  is a sensor on a submarine which functions similarly to a periscope without requiring a periscope tube, thus freeing design space during construction and limiting risks of water leakage in the event of damage. A photonics mast replaces the mechanical, line-of-sight viewing system with digital equipment, similar to a digital camera array, and it has fewer locational and dimensional constraints than a traditional periscope. Unlike a periscope, it need not be located directly above its user, and it requires only a small pressure hull penetration for cabling.
Log in. Search Website:. Become a member Our members Contact Login Register. An innovative firm of Glaswegian engineers are today celebrating years of being the sole periscope and optronics mast supplier to the Royal Navy's submarines.
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Crews onboard a submarine can spend months at sea, submerged, with no way to catch even a single glimpse of sunlight -- the only window to the outside world is the eyepiece of the periscope in the control room. The periscope is a fundamental piece of submarine equipment, and provides valuable visual data during battle and in determining the ship's position. Despite its valued service for more than 80 years, the U.